Cross-Border Disputes

In today’s globalised world, cross-border disputes are increasingly common as businesses engage in international transactions and expand their operations worldwide. Selecting the appropriate jurisdiction for dispute resolution is a critical aspect of drafting international contracts, as it can significantly impact the outcome of any legal challenges. Cyprus has emerged as a popular choice for parties seeking a reliable and effective jurisdiction for cross-border disputes. This article explores the key factors that make Cyprus an attractive jurisdiction for international contracts and dispute resolution, and how its courts expertly handle international legal challenges.

EU Membership and the Brussels Regime

As a member of the European Union, Cyprus adheres to EU regulations and directives, including those governing cross-border disputes. The Brussels I Regulation (Recast) (Regulation (EU) No. 1215/2012), which came into effect on January 10, 2015, is a key piece of legislation governing jurisdiction and the enforcement of judgments in civil and commercial matters. This Regulation streamlines the process of resolving cross-border disputes and ensures that judgments rendered in one EU member state are recognised and enforceable in another.

In addition to the Brussels I Regulation (Recast), the EU’s Rome I Regulation (Regulation (EC) No. 593/2008) and Rome II Regulation (Regulation (EC) No. 864/2007) govern the applicable law in contractual and non-contractual obligations, respectively. These regulations provide a harmonised framework for determining which law should be applied in cross-border disputes, further simplifying the resolution process.

Favourable Legal Framework

Cyprus has a common law legal system based on English law, which is widely recognised and respected internationally. Its legal framework is stable and transparent, offering legal certainty and predictability for businesses. Cyprus courts are known for their impartiality, professionalism, and efficient handling of disputes, enhancing the jurisdiction’s attractiveness for international contracts and dispute resolution.

Case Law: Owusu v. Jackson

A landmark case that highlights the importance of the Brussels I Regulation and the role of Cyprus courts is Owusu v. Jackson (Case C-281/02). The European Court of Justice (ECJ) held that a court of an EU member state, including Cyprus, cannot refuse jurisdiction over a cross-border dispute on the basis of forum non conveniens, even when the dispute has a stronger connection to a non-EU country. This ruling underscores the commitment of Cyprus courts to provide legal certainty and predictability in cross-border disputes.

Case Law: Gazprom OAO v. Lithuania (Case C-536/13)

Another significant case involving the Brussels I Regulation (Recast) is Gazprom OAO v. Lithuania (Case C-536/13). In this case, the ECJ clarified the relationship between the Regulation and the New York Convention on the Recognition and Enforcement of Foreign Arbitral Awards. The court held that EU member states, including Cyprus, may not refuse to recognise and enforce arbitral awards on the grounds that they are contrary to the Regulation, as long as the awards do not infringe on the principle of effectiveness of EU law.

Arbitration in Cross-Border Disputes

Arbitration is a popular choice for resolving cross-border disputes due to its flexibility, confidentiality, and enforceability. Cyprus, being a signatory to the New York Convention on the Recognition and Enforcement of Foreign Arbitral Awards (1958), ensures that arbitral awards rendered in other contracting states are recognised and enforceable in Cyprus. The Cyprus Arbitration and Mediation Centre (CAMC) offers a well-regarded institutional framework for resolving disputes through arbitration, and Cyprus courts actively support the arbitration process.

The pro-arbitration stance of Cyprus courts further bolsters the jurisdiction’s appeal for international contracts and dispute resolution. Their willingness to enforce foreign arbitral awards and support arbitration proceedings demonstrates their commitment to providing efficient and effective dispute resolution mechanisms for cross-border disputes.

Case Law: Astro Nusantara International BV v. PT First Media TBK

A noteworthy case involving the enforcement of foreign arbitral awards by Cyprus courts is Astro Nusantara International BV v. PT First Media TBK. In this case, the Cypriot courts upheld the enforcement of a Singaporean arbitral award, despite the fact that the award had been set aside by the Singaporean courts. This decision demonstrates the pro-arbitration stance of Cyprus courts and their commitment to upholding the principles of the New York Convention.


Another relevant case highlighting the role of Cyprus courts in cross-border disputes is FAVARGER SA v. SUNITA HYDROCOLLOIDS PVT LTD. In this case, the Supreme Court of Cyprus granted an interim injunction in support of an ongoing arbitration in Switzerland. The decision showcases the willingness of Cyprus courts to provide assistance in international arbitration proceedings, further solidifying Cyprus as an arbitration-friendly jurisdiction.

Multi-Jurisdictional Litigation

Cyprus courts have developed extensive experience in handling multi-jurisdictional litigation, which often arises in cross-border disputes. Their familiarity with the procedural rules and practices of various jurisdictions allows them to effectively adjudicate cases involving multiple legal proceedings simultaneously.

Case Law: Fiona Trust & Holding Corporation v. Privalov

A prominent example of multi-jurisdictional litigation is the Fiona Trust & Holding Corporation v. Privalov case. Cyprus courts played a crucial role in this complex dispute, which involved parallel proceedings in several jurisdictions, including England, Cyprus, and Russia. The case highlights the ability of Cyprus courts to manage intricate multi-jurisdictional disputes and deliver successful outcomes for the parties involved.

Services Offered by Chambers & Co in Cross-Border Disputes

Chambers & Co, as a leading Cypriot law firm, offers comprehensive legal services in the area of international legal challenges, including:

  1. Representation in cross-border litigation: Our experienced team of litigators can effectively represent clients in disputes before Cyprus courts, as well as coordinate with foreign counsel in parallel proceedings.
  2. Arbitration services: We guide clients through the arbitration process, from drafting arbitration clauses to representing clients in arbitration proceedings and enforcing arbitral awards.
  3. Expertise in EU law: Our Cyprus lawyers are well-versed in EU regulations and directives, ensuring that our clients receive knowledgeable advice in cross-border disputes governed by EU law.
  4. Multi-jurisdictional litigation management: We offer strategic advice and coordination in cases involving multiple jurisdictions, ensuring a seamless and efficient resolution process.
  5. Customised legal advice: Our team provides tailored legal advice in various fields of law, such as corporate and commercial law, intellectual property law, maritime law, banking and finance law and tax law.

In an increasingly interconnected world, cross-border disputes are bound to arise. Cyprus courts have demonstrated their proficiency in handling the complexities of international legal challenges through their extensive experience in EU regulations, arbitration and multi-jurisdictional litigation. At Chambers & Co, we leverage our expertise in these areas to provide comprehensive legal services to clients facing international disputes. By choosing Chambers & Co, clients can be confident that they are receiving expert advice and representation to achieve favourable outcomes in cross-border disputes.